„Individualizmus” változatai közötti eltérés

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Az individualizmus először a korai [[Franciaország|francia]] [[szocializmus|szocialistáknál]], a [[saint-simonizmus|saint-simonistáknál ]] jelent meg, mint az [[1789]] utáni társadalmi széthúzás magyarázata.<!--
The concept of "individualism" was first used by the French [[Saint-Simonianism|Saint-Simonian]] [[socialism|socialists]], to describe what they believed was the cause of the disintegration of French society after the [[1789]] [[French Revolution|Revolution]]. The term was however already used (pejoratively) by [[reactionary]] thinkers of the French Theocratic School, such as [[Joseph de Maistre]], in their opposition to political liberalism. The Saint-Simonians did not see political liberalism as the problem though, but saw in "individualism" a form of "egoism" or "anarchy," the "ruthless exploitation of man by man in modern industry." While the conservative anti-individualists attacked the political egalitarianism brought about by the Revolution, the Saint-Simonians criticized ''[[laissez-faire]]'' (economic liberalism), for its perceived failure to cope with the increasing inequality between rich and poor. [[Socialism]], a word introduced by the Saint-Simonians, was to bring about "social harmony."<ref name="Swart">{{cite journal| author = Swart, Koenraad W. | title = "Individualism" in the Mid-Nineteenth Century (1826-1860) | journal = Journal of the History of Ideas | year = 1962 | volume = 23 | issue = 1 | pages = 77-90}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal| author = [[Steven Lukes|Lukes, Steven]] | title = The Meanings of "Individualism" | journal = Journal of the History of Ideas | year = 1971 | volume = 32 | issue = 1 | pages = 45-66}}</ref><ref name="Claeys">{{cite journal| author = Claeys, Gregory | title = "Individualism," "Socialism," and "Social Science": Further Notes on a Process of Conceptual Formation, 1800-1850 | journal = Journal of the History of Ideas | year = 1986 | volume = 47 | issue = 1 | pages = 81-93}}</ref>
*{{cite book | author= [[Ralph Waldo Emerson|Emerson, Ralph Waldo]] | title = Self-Reliance| year = 1847| publisher = London: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd. | id = ISBN }}

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