Második nyelv elsajátítása

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A második nyelv elsajátítása (Second-language acquisition vagy röviden SLA), a második nyelv tanulása vagy elsajátítása az a folyamat, amellyel az emberek megtanulnak egy második nyelvet. A második nyelv elsajátítása egy tudományág is, amely a második nyelv elsajátításának folyamatát vizsgálja és tanulmányozza. A második nyelv elsajátításának területe az alkalmazott nyelvészet tudományágába tartozik, de számos más tudományággal is kapcsolatban áll, mint például a pszichológia és az oktatás.

Az SLA-kutatás központi témája az internyelv (angolul: interlanguage), az az elképzelés, hogy a nyelv, amelyet a tanulók használnak, nem pusztán a már ismert nyelvek és az általuk tanult nyelv közötti különbségek eredménye, hanem egy teljes nyelvrendszer, amelynek szisztematikus szabályai vannak. Ez az internyelv fokozatosan fejlődik, amikor a tanulók ki vannak téve a célnyelvnek. Az a sorrend, amellyel a tanulók megszerezik új nyelvük jellemzőit, rendkívül állandó marad, még a különféle anyanyelvű tanulók esetében is, függetlenül attól, hogy formális nyelvoktatásban volt-e részük. Azonban a nyelvek, amelyeket a tanulók már ismernek, jelentős hatással lehetnek az új nyelvek tanulásának folyamatára. Ez a hatás az úgynevezett nyelvi transzfer.

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Fordítás[szerkesztés]