Summertime (dal)

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A Summertime George Gershwin Porgy és Bess című operájának egyik dala. Szövegét Du Bose Heyward és Ira Gershwin írta.

Úgy tartják, hogy Gershwin e művének ihletője egy ukrán altatódal volt (Ой ходить сон коло вікон), amit New Yorkban hallott az Ukrán Nemzeti Kórus egyik előadásán.

A dal az operában négyszer is felcsendül, először altatódalként énekli Clara, majd röviddel később kórussal együtt is, aztán a dal refrénje hallható a második felvonásban, végül a harmadik felvonásban Bess énekli el. A dal az operától elszakadva önálló pályát futott be. A dzsessz-sztenderdek egyik legismertebb, legtöbbet előadott darabjává vált.

Története[szerkesztés | forrásszöveg szerkesztése]

A "Summertime" ária. George Gershwin szerezte 1935-ben a Porgy és Bess c. operája részeként. Szövegét DuBose Heyward a Porgy c. regény szerzője írta. E regény adta az opera alapját. Egyesek Ira Gershwint társszerzőként emlegetik.

A dal hamar közkedvelt lett. Így méltatták: "Kétségkívül ... a zeneszerző legszebb műveinek egyike... Gershwin nosztalgikus hangvétele brilliánsan vegyíti a jazzt és az USA déli részén a 20. sz. elején élő afro-amerikai zenei hagyományokat." Heywards két dala a "Summertime" és a "My Man's Gone Now" "a musical színház legjobb szövegei" - Stephen Sondheim zeneszerző és szövegíró.


Gershwin 1933 decemberében kezdett a dal szerzésébe. Saját spirituálét próbált írni, az akkori afro-amerikai stílusban. Az ukrán-kanadai szerző, énekes Alexis Kochan adta az ötletet, hogy a hangnem egy ukrán altatódal szerint legyen. Gershwin 1934 februárjára megzenésítette a verset, és a következő 20 hónapban már az operán dolgozott. Először Abbie Mitchell énekelte fel a dalt 1935 július 19-én. George Gershwin zongorán kísérte, és vezényelt.

Zenei elemzés[szerkesztés | forrásszöveg szerkesztése]

K.J. McElrath szakértő szerint:

"Gershwin rendkívül sikeresen interpretálta a népdalt. Ezt erősíti a pentaton skála (C-D-E-G-A) a-mollban, valamint a lassan kibontakozó harmóniák, blues-os stílusban. Ezek a tényezők adják, hogy a jazz előadók legkedveltebb darabjává vált az évtizedek során. Minden tempóban és stílusban előadták már.

Felvételei 38.100 különböző felvételét ismerjük. 1936 szeptemberében Billie Holiday volt az első, aki felkerült a pop toplistára vele a 12.-dik helyre. Ismert felvételek vannak még Louis Armstrong és Ella Fitzgerald (1957), Gene Vincent (1958), Sam Cooke és The Marcels (1961), Janis Joplin a Big Brother és a Holding Company-val (1968, Cheap Thrills album), valamint a Zombies. Az üzletileg legsikeresebb változat Billz Stewart dala volt. Ő 10.-dik lett a Billboar Hot 10 -en 1966-ban. 1998-ban Morcheeba és Hubert Laws énekelte fel a Red Hot Organisation csapat Red Hot - Rhapsody albumra, George Gershwin emlékére. A befolyó összeget az AIDS elleni küzdelemre ajánlották fel.

Híres felvételek[szerkesztés | forrásszöveg szerkesztése]


A szócikk egy része még lefordítandó. Segíts te is a fordításban!

  1. Cem Adrian on his 2005 album Ben Bu Sarkiyi Sana Yazdim
  2. Luis Arcaraz (released by RCA Victor Records as catalog number 20-4416, with the flip side "It's the Talk of the Town"
  3. Louis Armstrong from the album "What A Wonderful World"
  4. Chet Baker - on Chet Baker Quartet Plays Standards
  5. Mildred Bailey on the album "The Mildred Bailey Radio Show 1944-45"
  6. Fantasia Barrino on her debut album Free Yourself
  7. Sidney Bechet on the album "The Sidney Bechet Collection - 20 Golden Greats"
  8. George Benson on the album "It's uptown with the George Benson Quartet" (1966)
  9. Art Blakey - A Jazz Message (1963)
  10. Booker T. & The MG's from the album "The Best Of Booker T. & The MG's"
  11. Brainbox on their debut album Brainbox (1969)
  12. Billy Butterfield & Dick Wellstood from their album Rapport
  13. Eva Cassidy on the 2008 release Somewhere
  14. Ray Charles on the album "Porgy and Bess" with Cleo Laine
  15. Charlotte Church on her self-titled album
  16. John Coltrane - My Favorite Things (1960)
  17. Perry Como (released by RCA Victor Records as catalog number 20-4530, with the flip side "While We're Young"
  18. Sam Cooke in 1957
  19. Bing Crosby & Matty Malneck (originally recorded July 8, 1938 and released by Decca Records as catalog number 2147B, with the flip side "You Must Have Been a Beautiful Baby"
  20. Bob Crosby & his Orchestra (recorded October 21, 1938, released by Decca Records as catalog number 2205B, with the flip side "I'm Free (What's New?)"
  21. Billy Daniels from his album "Bubbling Black Magic"
  22. Miles Davis, on his album Porgy and Bess (1958).
  23. Deep Dive Corp. on their EP Summertime, 2000.
  24. Doc Watson recorded 1973, appears on the album Elementary Doc Watson/Then and Now, re-released in 1997 on the Collectables label. Recorded 1987-91 Doc Watson and David Grisman and released on the album Doc and Dawg by Acoustic Disc in 1997. More recent recordings with grandson Richard Watson.
  25. The Doors on their live album, Friday April 10 at Boston Arena, and an instrumental version on Live at the Matrix 1967.
  26. Kat Edmonson on her 2009 album, Take To The Sky
  27. Roy Eldridge on the album "The Trumpet Battle 1952"
  28. Duke Ellington on the album "Big Band Bounce & Boogie"
  29. Keith Emerson on the album "Changing States"
  30. Bill Evans on his album How My Heart Sings! in 1962
  31. Tal Farlow on his 1969 album The Return of Tal Farlow (Prestige Records).
  32. Frances Faye (recorded about 1954,released by Capitol Records as catalog number 2842, with the flip side "Mad about the Boy"
  33. Ella Fitzgerald, recorded in 1960, live in Berlin, on the Verve Records album Mack the Knife: Ella in Berlin
  34. Ella Fitzergerald & Louis Armstrong from the album "Les Plus Belles Pages De Porgy And Bess"
  35. Flowers on their album Challenge!
  36. Peter Gabriel on the album The Glory Of Gershwin, produced by George Martin, 1994
  37. Al Gallodoro (recorded in 1951, released by Columbia Records as catalog number 39472, with the flip side "Hora Staccato")
  38. Stan Getz on the album "Jazz 'Round Midnight - Gershwin"
  39. Stan Getz / Astrud Gilberto on the album "Getz Au Go Go"
  40. Dizzy Gillespie from the album "Trumpet Kings" with Roy Eldridge
  41. Herbie Hancock from the album "Gershwin's World"
  42. Wayne Hancock on his album Thunderstorms and Neon Signs
  43. John Handy with Class on the album "Centerpiece"
  44. Herbie Mann on the album "At The Village Gate"
  45. Richard Hayes (with the Eddie Sauter orchestra) (released by Mercury Records as catalog number 5833, with the flip side "Junco Partner (A Worthless Cajun)")
  46. Billie Holiday (recorded July 10, 1936, released by Columbia Records as catalog number 37496, with the flip side "Billie's Blues")
  47. Mahalia Jackson (appears on Bless this House, CBS Records, 1956)
  48. Anne Jamison (recorded July 14, 1939, released by Decca Records as catalog number 2876A, with the flip side "Looking for a Boy")
  49. Jazzamor on their album Lazy Sunday Afternoon
  50. Scarlett Johansson for Unexpected Dreams – Songs From the Stars and later performed on Live EPs released at the time of her debut album Anywhere I Lay My Head
  51. Janis Joplin released this song with Big Brother and the Holding Company. Some live versions have erroneously been credited with having Jimi Hendrix guesting on guitar, though in actuality the guitarists were James Gurley and Sam Andrew.
  52. Sammy Kaye's Orchestra (released by RCA Victor Records as catalog number 20-2390, with the flip side "June Is Busting Out All Over")
  53. Angélique Kidjo, released on Keep on Moving: The Best of Angélique Kidjo (2003)
  54. Jerry Kruger and her Orchestra (recorded April 25, 1939, released by Vocalion Records as catalog number 4927, with the flip side "Rain, Rain Go Away")
  55. Cleo Laine on the album "Porgy and Bess" with Ray Charles
  56. Leona Lewis on her 2006 debut UK CD single "A Moment Like This"
  57. Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians (recorded November 10, 1937, released by Victor Records as catalog number 25716, with the flip side "I'll See You in My Dreams")
  58. Julie London from the album "Gershwin Songbook Collection"
  59. Love Sculpture from the album "Blues Helping" that was recorded in early 1968.
  60. Gordon MacRae (Recorded 1959) from the album 'Fascinatin' Rhythm: Capitol Sings George Gershwin.
  61. Paul McCartney on his 1988 album Choba B CCCP
  62. Me First and the Gimme Gimmes on their album Are a Drag, 1999
  63. The Marcels as a Colpix and Pye single, 1961
  64. Colin Meloy on his album Colin Meloy Sings Sam Cooke
  65. Yehudi Menuhin and Stéphane Grappelli- Menuhin and Grappelli Play Gershwin, (1988)
  66. Charles Mingus on Mingus Three, 1957
  67. Joni Mitchell & Herbie Hancock on a Gershwin's 100th anniversary birthday tribute album Gershwin's World.
  68. Richie Monroe on his album "Reunion" (2003) from the independent label (Bard Wire Productions)
  69. Marion Montgomery on the album "Live at Ronnie Scott's Club"
  70. Morcheeba on Red Hot + Rhapsody: The Gershwin Groove, 1998.
  71. Cida Moreira on her 1981 debut album, Summertime
  72. Willie Nelson on Revolutions of Time...The Journey 1975/1993, 1995.
  73. Charlie Parker String Ensemble (recorded November 30, 1949, released by Mercury Records as catalog number 11038, with the flip side "I Didn't Know What Time It Was")
  74. Art Pepper from his album "Art Is The Art Vol I" recorded 1957-58 in Hollywood
  75. Oscar Peterson trio on Night Train vol.3, released by Verve Records as catalog number 711 071, 1969.
  76. Jane Pickens (recorded June 19, 1940, released by Columbia Records as catalog number 35580, with the flip side "Negro Spirituals")
  77. Courtney Pine on the album The Glory Of Gershwin, produced by George Martin, 1994
  78. The Porgy & Bess All-stars on the album "The Jazz Soul of Porgy & Bess"
  79. Original Broadway Cast on the album "Porgy & Bess"
  80. Boyd Raeburn and his Orchestra (released by Guild Records as catalog number 111, with the flip side "March of the #oyds")
  81. The Residents on their 1984 Gershwin/James Brown tribute album George & James.
  82. Spike Robinson on the album "The Gershwin Collection"
  83. Sonny Rollins on the album "All The Things You Are (1963-1964)"
  84. Red Saunders and his Orchestra (recorded December 31, 1953, released by Blue Lake Records as catalog number 101, with the flip side "Riverboat")
  85. B.B. Seaton on the Bread record label Catalog # BR- 1116B, 1973
  86. Artie Shaw and his Orchestra from the album "Blues In The Night
  87. Wayne Shorter; Michel Petrucciani; Stanley Clarke; Lenny White; Gil Goldstein; Pete Levin on the album " The Manhattan Project"
  88. Zoot Simms on the album "And The Gershwin Brothers"
  89. Nina Simone, 1999 album, "The Amazing Nina Simone/Nina Simone at Town Hall"
  90. Skamp on their 1999 album Angata
  91. Nathalie Soles, on her 2007 album Deeper on Milan Records.
  92. Charlie Spivak and his Orchestra (recorded December 19, 1944, released by RCA Victor Records as catalog number RCA201500, with the flip side "I Got Plenty of Nothin'")
  93. Stereophonics on their "A Thousand Trees" EP
  94. Billy Stewart, 1966, released as a single.
  95. Sublime on their song "Doin' Time" from their self-titled album.
  96. Erik Sumo Band on their album My Rocky Mountain, Pulver, 2006.
  97. Ten Years After on their album Undead, 1968.
  98. Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra from their 2001 album "Live" on Sony records.
  99. The Twilight Singers on their 2004 album "She Loves You"
  100. Sarah Vaughan (recorded in December, 1949, released by Columbia Records as catalog number 38701, with the flip side "I'm Crazy to Love You")
  101. Millicent Wood on her album Moonglow
  102. The Zombies on their 1965 debut album, Begin Here
  103. The Wailin Jennys on their 2009 album Live at the Mauch Chunk Opera House.
  104. Fantasia and Chaka Khan at the 2005 Pre-Grammy party